Ocean acidification is one of the major effects of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide due to greenhouse gas emissions. Since the Monaco Declaration on ocean acidification signed by 150 scientists from 26 countries in 2008, Prince Albert II of Monaco and his Foundation are very much involved in this key issue which is to be discussed at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 21, Paris 2015).

Annual “Economy and Acidification” workshops are jointly organised by the Monaco Scientific Centre and the IAEA marine laboratory with the support of the Prince Albert II Foundation. In 2010, the first workshop confirmed the potential socio-economic threats of the effects of ocean acidification, but also highlighted the difficulties in quantifying them. In 2012, the second workshop focused on one of the pillars of the marine economy: fisheries and aquaculture within the context of a regional approach.

The Ocean Acidification International Reference User Group (OA-iRUG), which is supported by the Prince Albert II Foundation, held its annual meeting in Monaco in early December 2013. It brought together players from civil society and scientists with the aim of making the main conclusions of research work accessible to all the parties concerned.

The Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation was the instigator of the AMAO (Association Monégasque pour l’Acidification des Océans). 

Its actual establishment was publicly declared by HSH the Sovereign Prince during his speech on 3rd December 2013 on the occasion of the Ocean Acidification International Reference User Group meeting.

The goals of the AMAO are to communicate on, promote and facilitate international actions on ocean acidification and other global stress factors affecting the marine environment. 

Consequently, the AMAO is committed to homogenise communication between the various institutions working in Monaco to combat ocean acidification: the Prince Albert II Foundation and the Government of Monaco, the IAEA environmental laboratories, the Monaco Scientific Centre and the Oceanographic Institute of Monaco.

Moreover it is made up of representatives of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the French National Research Centre (CNRS). 

In order to provide funding for projects aimed at combating ocean acidification, the AMAO is able to collect funds from private funding bodies.

The Oceanographic Institute

The Oceanographic Institute, founded in 1906 by Prince Albert I of Monaco, supports the implementation of sustainable ocean management able to reconcile biodiversity protection with economic activities that are more respectful of the marine ecosystems.

Supported by the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco and the Maison des Océans in Paris, it acts as an intermediary between the scientific community, the players involved in the maritime economy, political leaders and the general public.

Following on from the Monaco Declaration in 2009, the Oceanographic Museum regularly hosts high-level meetings focused on ocean acidification.

To find out more about all its activities:

The Monaco Scientific Centre (CSM)

The Monaco Scientific Centre (CSM) is an independent public research institution dependent on the Principality of Monaco.  Created in 1960 by Prince Rainier III, today it consists of three research departments: The marine biology department, set up in 1990, the polar biology department, set up in 2012 and the medical biology department, set up in 2013.

The marine biology department is specialised in the study of coral reefs, from the gene to human society, through to the ecosystem. Its researchers were among the first to take an interest in the effects of ocean acidification on corals.

Since 2010 it has jointly organised with the IAEA the “Ocean Acidification Economy” Workshop.

For further information, log onto

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the global centre for cooperation in the nuclear sector. It was established in 1957 under the aegis of the United Nations. The aim of the IAEA is to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technology.

Nuclear and isotope techniques are valuable tools for ocean acidification research and the IAEA Environmental Laboratories in Monaco coordinate activities focused on this global environmental issue. As part of its “Peaceful Uses Initiative” in 2012 the IAEA launched the “Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre “(OA-ICC) whose goal is to promote and facilitate a series of international activities on ocean acidification. For further information, log onto

Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation

In June 2006, HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco decided to establish his Foundation to address our planet's alarming environmental situation. The Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation is dedicated to the protection of the environment and the promotion of sustainable development on a global scale.  The Foundation supports projects in three main geographical zones and focuses its efforts focus on three main areas : To limit the effect of climate change and promote renewable energies, to safeguard biodiversity, and to protect water resources and combat desertification. 


Actions of AMAO's partners

The Ocean Solutions Initiative

Climate change already affects marine and coastal ecosystems and ecosystem services. Risk levels strongly depend on future rates of greenhouse gas emissions and even a global surface warming of between 1.5-2.0°C by the end of the century compared to pre-industrial levels, consistent with the Paris Agreement, will generate serious impacts on the ocean. Hence there is urgent need for ambitious global mitigation and local adaptation, and for assessing the possible contribution of the ocean to the leeway for action.

The Ocean Solutions Initiative was launched to assess the potential of ocean-based measures to reduce changes in three major climate-related drivers (ocean warming, ocean acidification, and sea-level rise) both globally and/or locally, as well as to reduce adverse impacts on vital climate-sensitive ecosystems (coral reefs, mangroves and salt marshes, seagrass beds, and Arctic biota) and ecosystem services (fin fisheries, fish aquaculture, coastal protection, and bivalve fisheries and aquaculture).

This web page lists the products of The Ocean Solutions Initiative as they become available.

Participants are:
Vanesa Chalastani and Jean-Olivier Irisson also contributed.

The Ocean Solutions Initiative is coordinated by the Monegasque Association on Ocean Acidification. We are grateful for the support of the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, the Veolia Foundation, the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre and the French Facility for Global Environment.

Publications: Presentations at meetings and seminars: Animated movie: Press releases: Interviews and media articles (many duplicate stories not listed): General public:

Ocean 2015

The Oceans 2015 Initiative was launched to provide COP21 negotiators with key information on how the future ocean will look like. It is led by CNRS-UPMC and IDDRI and is supported by the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the BNP Paribas Foundation and the Monégasque Association for Ocean Acidification. Key products of this initiative are available for scientists, decision makers and the general public.

Acidification, warmer oceans, sea level rise threaten the all marine that video, the Ocean Initiative 2015 Project provides straightforward answers to this issue.

The Oceans 2015 Initiative: an impact scenario for COP 21 / Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales

Project management: Institut du Développement Durable et des Relations Internationales (IDDRI)

The 21st Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will be held in Paris in 2015. Its outcome is critically important as developed, emerging and developing countries will negotiate the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions trajectory of the next decades to century (post-Kyoto Protocol). On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that the increase in GHGs concentrations (especially CO2) in the atmosphere profoundly affects marine and coastal ecosystems and species though both ocean acidification and the increase in sea temperatures. This seriously threatens human activities and well-being – concrete impacts can already be observed e.g., on coral reefs and the oyster industry. As a consequence, limiting the problem (i.e., drastically reducing CO2 and GHGs emissions) remains a major challenge to be addressed, and immediately reinforcing the dialogue between the scientific and negotiation/political arenas is of crucial importance in the context of COP 21.

Since COP 19 in Warsaw, negotiations have been directed towards the adoption of mitigation commitments from all countries, and national “contributions” are expected by March 2015. The Oceans 2015 Initiative aims at gathering a group of international experts in order to translate this March 2015 global GHGs emissions trajectory into an impact scenario for oceans and coasts. In other words, given this trajectory, what may be the impacts of both ocean acidification and climate change? What will the oceans look like over the 21st century (physics and chemistry, ecosystems and organisms)? What does this mean for current and future societies? Answering these questions will help the group to design key messages that will be disseminated to the negotiation teams in order to help them take ambitious decisions regarding future GHGs emissions), and to “external” stakeholders such as NGOs and the general public for the purpose of raising awareness.

Partners: on board: Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UMPC) / pending: BNP-Paribas Foundation; USA Embassy in Paris


The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part I. An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on physical and biological processes in the oceans --- E. Howes, F. Joos, M. Eakin, J.-P. Gattuso ---,Part-I-An-updated-synthesis-of-the-observed-and-projected-impacts-of-climate-change-on-physical-and

The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part II. An updated understanding of the observed and projected impacts of ocean warming and acidification on marine and coastal socioeconomic activities/sectors --- L. Weatherdon, A. Rogers, R. Sumaila, A. Magnan, W.L. Cheung ---,Part-II-An-updated-understanding-of-the-observed-and-projected-impacts-of-ocean-warming-and-acidific

Observed and projected impacts of climate change on marine fisheries, aquaculture, coastal tourism, and human health: an update

The Monaco declaration 

Drawn up following the Second Symposium on Ocean Acidification, which was held in the Principality from 6th to 9th October 2008, the “Monaco Declaration” co-signed by 155 scientists from 26 countries, was publicised during the ASLO aquatic science congress that took place in Nice at the end of January.

The declaration, prefaced by H.S.H. Prince Albert II, is aimed at informing political decision makers on the challenges of ocean acidification and encouraging research in this field. It calls for immediate action so as to seriously reduce CO2 emissions in order to prevent physico-chemical modifications to the ocean causing extensive and serious damage to the marine ecosystems on which half of the world population’s survival depends.

See more



Workshop Ocean Acidifcation 

Workshop n°1: Recommandations CSM/AIEA (2011) 

Workshop n°2: Economics of ocean acidification (2012)

Workshop n°3: Economics of ocean acidification (2013)


1st OAiRUG

The Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group (OA-iRUG) was launched as part of the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) in 2008 as a key means of conveying the scientific results coming out of the project to non-scientific audiences and science end-users, in particular policy and decision makers. The concept is simple but efficient: bringing together scientists and stakeholders from various backgrounds such as industry, governmental and non-governmental organizations, to allow networking and the presentation of key findings to interested non-scientific parties. 

The RUG helped EPOCA scientists to reach out to a different audience through a series of briefings and guides available in multiple languages, disseminated widely, and brought to international policy fora such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP). RUG members also fed back the findings of the project to their parent organisations. 

In 2010 the EPOCA RUG evolved to support and be supported by the three other main projects on ocean acidification at the time: the German project BIOlogical Impacts of Ocean ACIDification (BIOACID), the UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme (UKOA) and the European Union project Mediterranean Sea Acidification in a Changing Climate (MedSeA). In 2013, the work of the group could be brought to a true international dimension thanks to the generous support of the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, and the Ocean Acidification international Reference User Group (OA-iRUG) was launched. 

The OA-iRUG, chaired by Professor Dan Laffoley (IUCN), is working with current projects and with the OA-ICC to examine in detail the types of data, analyses and products that are most useful to managers, policy advisers, decision makers and politicians and ensure an appropriate format and distribution vehicles. 

2nd OAiRUG

Bridging the Gap between Ocean Acidification and Economic Valuation

“Ocean acidification impacts on coastal communities”

Principality of Monaco


Workshop description and objectives

Vision statement

The 3rd International Workshop on the socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification aims to provide policymakers and marine resource managers with recommendations to become aware and prepare for the social and economic impacts on coastal communities. The workshop will focus on five areas of societal impact in relation to ocean acidification:

It is a fundamental tenet of the supporters of this workshop that the best available scientific information can be used to make decisions to face the deteriorated condition of the ocean environment. Without the reversal of the source of the physical phenomenon, namely excess anthropogenic CO2 emissions, societal impacts of ocean acidification will require adaptation and forward planning in the ways living ocean resources are used and protected. Participants in the workshop will assess potential social and economic impacts and human adaption options to environmental change in the oceans, and summarize information to assist policymakers, resource managers and communities in developing responses to ocean acidification. A primary outcome of the workshop will be to inform politicians and resource managers of the cost/benefit of ocean acidification to coastal communities in terms of impacts to subsistence, livelihoods, employment, infrastructure, cultural use, environmental quality and ecosystem services via changes to natural resource availability and condition.


Coastal communities and their economies will be impacted by global ocean acidification and localized coastal acidification events in the future. However, communities, ranging from mega-cities to artisanal fishing villages differ significantly in population, maritime activity and reliance on marine natural resources. Furthermore, marine dependence differs among respective communities and may be based on tourism, subsistence fisheries, marine resource trade, or a mixture of activities and services. Identifying the pathway and level of acidification impact on communities will become a concern of governments of coastal countries. This workshop will begin to provide policymakers, managers and communities with recommendations of possible human actions or solutions to adapt to ocean acidification and the changing marine environment.

Purpose and scope 

The purpose of this workshop is to identify and discuss the pathways of impact that ocean acidification may have on social and economic aspects of coastal communities and recommend options for human adaptation to address the consequences of excess CO2 in the oceans. Multi-disciplinary working groups will discuss impacts to fisheries, tourism, trade, marine business, governance, traditional culture and ways to model the cascade of impacts of ocean acidification on human activities. The recommendations will provide policymakers and other stakeholders with combined natural and social sciences information to generate alternative approaches to support sustainable development, while reducing both the source and the impacts of ocean acidification. The discussions should focus on pathways of impact and possible solutions through social transformation in the context of the UN sustainable development goals. Low carbon industries and activities may be part of the solution because they result in a cleaner, more resilient environment and social structure.

OA-iRUG products (most recent first)

Acting on ocean acidification - "Our oceans" Valparaiso (October 5-6, 2015)

Executive summary : Download
Rapport principal : Download

Monaco Action Plan (June 8th, 2015)


Monaco Action Plan


Updating what we know about ocean acidification and key global challenges: Ocean Acidification - The Knowledge Base 2012

Messages for Rio+20: Ocean Acidification - Acting on Evidence (2012)

Making it clear: Ocean Acidification - Questions Answered (2010)

A special introductory guide for policy advisers and decision makers: Ocean Acidification - The Facts (2009)

OA-ICC,  August – December 2014:

In addition to its already established endeavours in science, capacity building and communication for the year 2015 (training courses, data managers meeting etc.), the OA-ICC has programmed a series of new activities, among which: